By Morris Salkoff

1. desk of symbols, pxi; 2. Preface, pxiii; three. 1. advent, p1; four. 2. significant sentence buildings; the verb; the item, p25; five. three. The Noun word, p119; 6. four. Adjuncts, p167; 7. five. Conclusions; purposes, p313; eight. References, p335; nine. Index, p339

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Additional resources for A French-English grammar : a contrastive grammar on translational principles

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Of what is made this cake? → Of what is this cake made? b À quoi sert ce balai? For what is used this broom? → For what is this broom used? c À quoi servira ce balai? For what will be used this broom? → For what will this broom be used? The change of à (to) to for is obtained in the same way as was discussed above for intéresse, where à is replaced by in. The permutation of the preposition to the end of the sentence improves the translation considerably in these sentences: (20)d De quoi est fait ce gâteau?

The translations given above must be considered as rough approximations. When voici/voilà is followed by a time noun Nt and a complement clause, voici/voilà Nt is translated as it has been Nt, and the main verb of the clause is translated as a present perfect progressive, for those verbs that can appear in this tense (cf. 23), and as a present perfect for those verbs that cannot. :. : Obj tV Sbj in the subordinate → Sbj tV Obj in English; cf. 12, (i)) c Voici pourquoi Max est faché → Here is why Max is angry The noun adjunct que voici can be translated as here when it is not followed by a colon, and as following, with a permutation to the left of the noun, when followed by a colon: (35)a L'hypothèse que voici est que Ph → The hypothesis here is that S b Il a fait la proposition que voici: nous devons...

C Avec quel outil Max a-t-il travaillé? → With what tool did Max work? 132 Wh- Questions (i) Obj tV Sbj, with Obj = que, Prep {qui + quoi + où), or Prep NP{qu-). The object here must contain one of the sequences in qu-, or a noun phrase NP{qu-) containing quel or lequel. The English word order is Obj Sbj tV, together with a permutation of the auxiliary do or be: (19)a (Que veut + Qu'a voulu) cet homme? → (What does this man want? ) b (Laquelle + Quel livre) voulait Max? → Which (one + book) did Max want?

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