By Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin

This e-book takes a multidisciplinary and long term historic viewpoint to review the evolution of African political structures and associations. It ranges from Antiquity (Egypt, Kush, and Axum) to the current, with a specific specialize in the destruction of those political structures and associations via successive exogenous techniques, together with the Atlantic slave exchange, imperialism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism or globalization.

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One of its rulers, Hano, was responsible for building settlements along the Moroccan coast. The constitution of Carthage was one of the most elaborate in antiquity. Political leadership was based on heredity. Kings assumed sacral, judicial, political, and military powers. Certain families were prominent in its political life. For example, the Magnid family ruled between the fifth and sixth century BCE. This was a period of state consolidation through increased control over conquered territories.

130 Claude Ake takes this argument one step further by contrasting liberal democracy with popular democracy. ”135 Eventually, the African state, characterized by “a very rudimentary modern public displaced and retarded by a multiplicity of primordial publics: ethnic, national, communal and subnational,”136 must be radically transformed in one of two directions. One direction—which implies a highly accelerated capitalist development—is not a likely prospect in contemporary Africa. The other direction “is for the community to become the state.

The long predynastic era, characterized by a string of independent local polities, came to an end around 3100 BCE. Between 3100 and 2500 BCE came the period of the Old Kingdom. 1057/9780230618312 - A New Paradigm of the African State, Mueni wa Muiu and Guy Martin Indigenous African Political Systems and Institutions 25 pyramids as the proper form of a royal tomb. A readjustment of power between kings and subjects seems to have taken place after the Fourth Dynasty. During the Sixth Dynasty, provincial governors (especially in the Upper Nile) seem to have gained increasing autonomy.

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