By Audrey Thomson, Agnes Martinet

The routines can be utilized without or with the Grammar. They comprise a solution key.

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Nevertheless, it is also important to remember that speaking forms a part of the shared social activity of talking. In a typical spoken interaction, two or more people talk to each other about things that they think are mutually interesting and relevant in the situation. Their aim can be to pass the time, amuse each other, share opinions or get something done, or they can aim to do several of these and other things at once. The point in their interaction is that they do these things together. Each participant is both a speaker and a listener; they construct the event together and share the right to influence the outcomes – which can be both shared and individual.

This is because speakers are only influenced by those features of the context that are salient to them, and this varies from individual to individual and from situation to situation (Douglas, 1998). Moreover, since the relationship between the speakers, as well as their experience of the speaking situation, also form parts of context, it is simply impossible to engineer all the contextual features of a speaking situation before it actually happens. Nevertheless, some aspects of context can be controlled and their effect on discourse predicted to some extent.

G. Savignon, 1985; Bachman, 1988; van Lier, 1989; Lazaraton, 1992). The interlocutor initiates all phases of the interaction and asks the questions, whereas the role of the examinee is to comply and answer. In other types of interactions, such as discussions or conversations, the rights and responsibilities of the participants to take the initiative are more balanced, and interviews do not give direct evidence of the examinee’s ability to deal with these demands. Yet they do provide the examinees with an opportunity to show a range of how well they can speak the language, so they do work as tests.

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