By Rodney Huddleston, Geoffrey K. Pullum

This groundbreaking undergraduate textbook on sleek ordinary English grammar is the 1st to be in response to the progressive advances of the authors' past paintings, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002). The textual content is meant for college students in faculties or universities who've very little prior historical past in grammar, and presupposes no linguistics. It includes routines, and should offer a foundation for introductions to grammar and classes at the constitution of English, not just in linguistics departments but additionally in English language and literature departments and colleges of schooling.

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In She did her best, etc. - do is a lexical verb. This is evident from the fact that to form the interrogative or negative in such cases we use dummy do, just as with other lexical verbs: [22] WITHOUT DUMMY do a. * Does she her best? WITH DUMMY do b. Does she do her best? (b) Have Have is always an auxiliary when it marks perfect tense (where it normally occurs with a following past participle). When it occurs in clauses describing states, expressing such meanings as posses­ sion (He has enough money) or obligation ( You have to sign both forms), usage is divided.

It applies to sub­ jects, for instance. The NP his guilt, as in the clause His guilt was obvious, is a pro­ totypical subject, whereas in That he was guilty was obvious the subordinate clause that he was guilty is a non-prototypical subject. ). 6 The structure of phrases A phrase normally consists of a head, alone or accompanied by one or more dependents. The category of the phrase depends on that of the head: a phrase with a noun as head is a noun phrase, and so on. We distinguish several different kinds of dependent, the most important of which are introduced in the following subsections.

2 There are two inflectional properties that distinguish the modal auxil­ iaries from all other verbs. They also share a purely syntactic property that distin­ guishes the prototypical ones from nearly all other verbs. (a) Lack of secondary inflectional forms Modals have only primary forms and hence simply cannot occur in constructions requiring a secondary form - a plain form, gerund-participle or past participle. We can see this clearly when we contrast the modal auxiliary must with have, which can have a very similar meaning but is not a modal auxiliary: [20] NOT MODAL AUXILIARY MODAL AUXILIARY a.

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