By Steve Kilts

This booklet offers the complicated problems with FPGA layout because the underlying subject matter of the paintings. In perform, an engineer ordinarily should be mentored for a number of years sooner than those ideas are correctly applied. the subjects that might be mentioned during this ebook are necessary to designing FPGA's past average complexity. The objective of the publication is to provide sensible layout innovations which are in a different way in basic terms to be had via mentorship and real-world adventure.

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Extra info for Advanced FPGA Design: Architecture, Implementation, and Optimization

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Other tools ignore skew problems if the clocks remain unconstrained but will add artificial delays once the clocks have been constrained properly. Unlike ASIC designs, hold violations in FPGA designs are rare due to the built-in delays of the logic blocks and routing resources. One thing that can cause a hold delay, however, is excessive delay on the clock line as shown above. Due to the fact that the data propagates in less than 1 ns and the clock in almost 2 ns, the data will arrive almost 1 ns before the clock and lead to a serious timing violation.

Any constraints on the reset will not only use available set/reset pins but will also limit the number of library elements to choose from. Using set and reset can prevent certain combinatorial logic optimizations. 11 Simple synchronous logic with OR gate. 12 OR gate implemented with set pin. 13 Simple synchronous logic with AND gate. 14 AND gate implemented with CLR pin. In the code example above, an external reset signal is used to reset the state of the flip-flop. 15. 15, a resetable flip-flop was used for the asynchronous reset capability, and the logic function (OR gate) was implemented in discrete logic.

If the critical path is defined through the adder, some of the logic in the critical path can be moved back a stage, thereby balancing the logic load between the two register stages. Consider the following modification where one of the add operations is moved back a stage: module adder( output reg [7:0] input [7:0] input reg [7:0] Sum, A, B, C, clk); rABSum, rC; 14 Chapter 1 Architecting Speed always @(posedge clk) begin rABSum <= A + B; rC <= C; Sum <= rABSum + rC; end endmodule We have now moved one of the add operations back one stage between the input and the first register stage.

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