By Dagmar Haumann
This monograph presents an in-depth research of the structural integration and the licensing of adverbs when it comes to clause constitution, with detailed emphasis at the structural implementation of the relation among the placement and interpretation of adverbs. The e-book substantiates the speculation that the licensing of adverbs inside of and around the 3 layers of the clause is contingent on specifier-head contract and that version within the linear order of adverbs and different components of the clause follows from the interaction of a small variety of components. The important claims made are: practical projections website hosting adverbs aren't constrained to the inflectional and complementizer layer of the clause, but additionally play a crucial position within the shaping of the lexical layer; postverbal adverbs are learned inside of a semantically empty verbal projection and authorized less than specifier head contract through proxy; and adverbs that happen in the complementizer layer of the clause achieve this via both move or merge.
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Additional resources for Adverb Licensing and Clause Structure in English
It has been (loudly hesitantly) performed (loudly hesitantly). * The aria has been loudly performed hesitantly. The aria has been hesitantly performed loudly. To rule out the illicit strings, one would have to postulate an output filter stating that (a) VP-adjoined adverbs must not be adjacent and (b) adverbs licensed by the feature [AGENT] must outscope those licensed by the feature [MANNER]. As witnessed by the contrasts between the well-formed and the illicit strings in (64) – (66), multiple adjunction to IP is prone to run into the same problems as multiple adjunction to VP: (64) a.
A completely different approach to adverb licensing is advocated by McConnell-Ginet (1982) and Larson (1985, 1988, 1990). 4). 1 Modification Sportiche (1988) argues that the distribution of adverbs is governed by the Adjunct Projection Principle in (13), which is taken to be the non-thematic analogue of the Projection Principle and to establish "a direct connection between the lexical meaning of modifiers and the syntactic configuration in which they appear" (cf. Sportiche 1988:429): (13) Adjunct Projection Principle (Sportiche 1988:429) If some semantic type X 'modifies' some semantic type Y, and X and Y are syntactically realized as a and b, a is projected as adjacent either to b or to the head of b.
95) X c-commands Y iff X and Y are categories and X excludes Y and every category that dominates X dominates Y (Kayne 1994:16) One of the consequences of the system is the distribution of specifiers and complements relative to the head. Kayne (1994) argues that all terminals of the specifier and all terminals of the complement are realized on the opposite side of the head (cf. Kayne 1994:34). Since M in (96) asymmetrically c-commands R, and R asymmetrically c-commands T, U and V, the set of nonterminals A contains the pairs