By Seeram Ramakrishna

A long time of cumulative learn has been carried out at the utilization of fiber-reinforced composites for biomedical program, yet not anyone resource exists the place this subject is handled systematically. This ebook addresses polymer composites utilized to bioengineering in a finished demeanour.

For strength functions to achieve success, complete virtue has to be taken of the fabrics houses and the producing strategies to fulfill the wishes of biomedical software. This publication specializes in fiber-based composites utilized to bioengineering. It addresses 3 major components. First, it offers a complete survey of biocomposites from the prevailing literature in quite a few clinical functions, paying specific recognition to hard-tissue-related implants. moment, mechanical designs and production elements of varied fibrous polymer matrix composites are defined. The 3rd region matters examples of the layout and improvement of a number of clinical units and implants utilizing polymer composites.

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As surface treatments are commonly applied to reinforcement fibers, it is generally recommended that biocompatibility tests be performed for the composite biomedical devices to ensure that no toxic/harmful sizing agent has been involved. Furthermore, a composite processing may also give rise to some changes in the material especially biological properties. 1 Reinforcement Materials A variety of fibers and particulates which are biocompatible can be used as reinforcements in the fabrication of biocomposites.

In some cases of inflammation induced by wear particles, a phenomenon known as aseptic loosening may occur where the prosthesis loses its original bond to the bone. More recently, high precision metal to metal and ceramic to ceramic pairs have been introduced that show excellent wear properties. However, they cannot be considered as zerowear systems, consequently, aseptic loosening will remain a major clinical issue. Another major unresolved problem is the lack of structural biocompatibility since strong high modulus metal alloys are used for the stem that extends from the ball.

Apart from cases where known toxic materials are used, the only instance where implants caused significant numbers of chronic health problems was where large quantities of wear debris was generated. For reasons that are poorly understood, it appears that the minute size and unnatural shape of wear debris may provoke a pathological response in the patient. The early models of orthopaedic implant were fitted with sliding surfaces made of PTFE (Poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene), since PTFE was known to offer Biocompatability 21 a low sliding friction coefficient at moderate sliding speeds and temperatures.

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