By Christoph Stein, Christoph Stein

This quantity makes an attempt to summarize the present country of data on mechanisms underlying a few of the results of analgesics, their part influence profiles, and their symptoms and contraindications in medical use. It additionally provides insights into present efforts to find novel mechanisms underlying the iteration of alternative forms of soreness and the ensuing improvement of recent modulating compounds.

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Sample text

Neuropathic pain, musculoskeletal pain) is controversial. Despite the fact that many patients have received opioids chronically (Portenoy et al. 1991), we do not really know how well they work. Opioid efficacy in musculoskeletal pain and neuropathic pain has been claimed in a number of case reports and uncontrolled open studies. Few controlled studies investigating the efficacy and side effects of opioids in these clinical settings are available (Caldwell et al. 1999; Moulin et al. 1996; Peloso et al.

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2 Physical Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 53 54 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Abstract Opioids are the most effective and widely used drugs in the treatment of severe pain. They act through G protein-coupled receptors. Four families of endogenous ligands (opioid peptides) are known. The standard exogenous opioid analgesic is morphine. Opioid agonists can activate central and peripheral opioid receptors.

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