By P. T Abraham
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Additional resources for Apatani Grammar
Patient role in a sentence. It has the 38/MORPHOLOGY tio kago mi latuti • I Kago ace. t. 'I caught Kago' nika aba hi nimi gabineI-gen. father det. 1-acc. t. 'my father scolded me' mo' erao mi pitikushe paddy ace. collect-asp. 'she collected the paddy' aki hi ami si mi pidu^dog det. cat det. ace. bark-asp. 'the dog is barking at the cat' molu sulu mi berbidu. they fence ace. jump-asp. 'they are jumping over the fence' no nika obuko leroa mi rone I I-gen. place of birth village ace. once tare apamara sisi rayepatime native place till now leave 'I never left my native town till now' When the subject and object noun share the semantic feature (+human)/C+animate) the accusative case sign is used obligatorily.
32 for details). Deixis The notion of deixis handles certain features of language which are relative to place and time of utterance. Deictic categories are found in Apatani that are used to identify ty pical spatial and social situation. As already mentioned, this feature is found in the pronominal system. , known Vs. , visible Vs. invisible. The pronoun 'si' is used for referents that are known/in the vicinity of the speaker and 'hi' is used for referents that are unknown/not in the vicinity of the speaker.
Mi'. It functions as the indirect object at syntactic level. Since the 40/MORPHOLOGY semantic role and the syntactic function of the dative and accusative noun phrases are different» they are treated as separate cases despite its identity in form. Moreover both dative and accusative noun phrases occur in a simple sentence. Dative noun phrase indicates the bene- factive role. no nika nyimi ajin mi tasan soye I I-gen. girl friend dat. necklace one mi bitoace. t. 'I gave my girl friend a necklace' nika ani tade mi yo bibine.