By Jack C. Richards

This widely-used publication offers a transparent description and research of the main ways and techniques utilized in moment and overseas language instructing. equipment and techniques coated comprise: grammar translation, the direct technique, situational language educating, the silent approach, overall actual reaction, the normal process and suggestopedia.

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9. Communica tive activities on ly come after a long process of figid drills and exercises. 10. The use of th e studen t's native language is forb idden. 11. Translation is forbidden at early levels. 12. Reading and writing are deferred till speech is mastered. 13. The target lingui sti c system will be learned through the overt tcaching of th e patterns of the system. 14. Lingu istic competence is the desi red goal. sought. Any device which helps the learners is accepted - varyin g accord ing to th eir age, interest, etc.

Hymes 1972: 281) T his theory of what knowing a language entails offers a much more comprehensive view than Chomsky's view of competence, which deals primarily with abstract grammatical knowledge. Another linguistic theory of communication favored in CLT is Halliday'S functional account of language use. "Linguistics ... is concerned . . with the description of speech acts or texts, since only through the study of language in use are all the functions of language, and therefore all components of meaning, brought into focus" (Halliday 1970: 145) .

Completion. The student hears an utteran ce th at is compl ete except for one word, t hen repears the utteran ce in compl eted form. EXA MPLES. I'll go my way and you go .... - I'll go my way and you go yours. We all have ... own troubles. -We all have our own troubles .... 6. Transposition. A change in word order is necessary when a word is added. EXAM PLES . I'm hun gry. (so). -So am I. f'lIn cvc r do it ~gn in . (neith er). - Ncil"llCr will I. • They must be hon est. This is important. - It is impo rta nt that they be honest.

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